International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) classifies nanoporous materials into three categories - microporous with pores of less than 2 nm in diameter, mesoporous having pores between 2 and 50 nm, and macroporous with pores greater than 50 nm. Carbon mesoporous materials, with unique properties such as high surface high surface area, ordered pore structure, high pore volume, narrow pore size distribution, and tunable pore diameters, interaction with organic molecules and electrical conductivity widely used in adsorption, separation, catalysis, drug delivery and determination of biological molecules. The most used methods for synthesis of carbon mesoporous materials are hard & soft templating methods. In contrast, hard templating method includes 3 steps: 1) preparation of silicate template 2) filling of porosity of silicate template by a suitable carbon precursor and then carbonization in inert atmosphere and 3) removal of silicate template. While soft templating method requires 2 steps: 1) self-assembling of copolymer and carbon precursor as mesosphase structure and 2) carbonization of msophase. Searching the literature shows that catalytic graphitization is the most useful way for improving the electrical properties of carbon mesoporous materials. Also heat diffusion is the most applicable method for preparation of carbon-sulphur nanocomposite, by which the melted sulphur could be imbibed into the nanoporous carbon matrix by capillary force.
The desired nanoporous material was synthesized using sucrose and nickel nitrate as carbon precursor and graphitization catalyst respectively. The sulphur/graphitic nanoporous carbon composite was prepared by a facile heat-diffusion method. The prepared materials were characterized using nitrogen adsorption/desorption, wide X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammaetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results indicate that electrical conductivity of nanoporous carbon was improved. The obtained results also shows that prepared nanocomposite (graphitic nanoporous carbon- sulphur) has enhanced electrical conductivity in comparison with elemental sulphur.